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Opioid Use Disorders

There are many substances known as an opioid. Many of them are commonly prescribed medications and are known by many different names. Here is a list of the most common opioid medications with their generic and brand names.

Hydrocodone (Vicodin)
Oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet)
Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
Oxymorphone (Opana, Numorphan, Numorphone)

Codeine
Fentanyl
Morphine (Kadian, Avinza)
Methadone


Heroin is also an opioid but is not a medication. Any of these opioids can be abused. Abuse of opioids can result in increased tolerance (a need for increasing amount of opioids to achieve the desired effect or diminished effect with use of the same amount of an opioid) or withdrawal symptoms when opioid use is discontinued.


An individual may be diagnosed with an opioid use disorder if 2 or more of the following criteria exist:

1. Opioids are often taken in larger amount or over a longer period of time than intended.

2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.

3. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain, use or recovery from its effects.

4. Craving or strong desire to use opioids

5. Recurrent opioid use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school or home.

6. Continued opioid use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of opioids.

7. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of opioid use.

8. Recurrent opioid use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.

9. Continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by opioids.

10. Tolerance

11. Withdrawal


Individuals who meet the criteria for an opioid use disorder will find it difficult to overcome this disorder without treatment.